Grief and Mourning in Cross-Cultural Perspective

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Kwanzaa is an African-American and Pan-African holiday that celebrates family, community and culture. It is observed from December 26 through January 1 and its origins may be found in the first harvest celebrations of Africa, from which this holiday takes its name. Kwanzaa is derived from the phrase, “matunda ya kwanza,” which means “first fruits” in Swahili, a Pan-African tongue that is the most widely spoken language of Africa. The first-fruits celebrations are recorded in African history dating back to Ancient Egypt and Nubia, with references, both ancient and modern, appearing in other classical African civilizations, such as Ashantiland and Yorubaland, and among societies as large as empires Kwanzaa was conceived and developed in by Dr. Maulana Ron Karenga, an author and scholar-activist who stresses the need to preserve, continually revitalize and promote African American culture. Kwanzaa was first celebrated on December 26, and having been introduced in the midst of the Black Freedom Movement of the mid s, reflects a concern for cultural groundedness in thought and practice.

The Culture of Arranged Marriages in India

It’s basically dating, only without the stigma associated with premarital sex, and confined entirely within four-legged sex huts. If a girl is interested in a boy, she’ll invite him back to her private clubhouse for an intimate evening that may or may not result in sex, depending on how well his jokes are landing. Regardless of the outcome, the boy has to get his ass out of the hut by dawn, because a young man and a young woman aren’t allowed to be seen in public together unless they are officially a couple.

Bullfighting History The spectacle of bullfighting has existed in one form or another since ancient days. For example, a contest of some sort is depicted in a wall painting unearthed at Knossos in Crete, dating from about BC.

Duration[ edit ] The average duration of courtship varies considerably throughout the world. Furthermore, there is vast individual variation between couples. Courtship may be completely omitted, as in cases of some arranged marriages where the couple do not meet before the wedding. In the United Kingdom , a poll of 3, [1] engaged or married couples resulted in an average duration between first meeting and accepted proposal of marriage of 2 years and 11 months, [1] [2] with the women feeling ready to accept at an average of 2 years and 7 months.

The date is fairly casual in most European-influenced cultures, but in some traditional societies, courtship is a highly structured activity, with very specific formal rules. In some societies, the parents or community propose potential partners and then allow limited dating to determine whether the parties are suited. Courtship in the Philippines is one known complex form of courtship.

Unlike what is regularly seen in other societies, it takes a far more subdued and indirect approach. It is common to see the male showing off by sending love letters and love poems, singing romantic songs, and buying gifts for the female. The parents are also seen as part of the courtship practice, as their approval is commonly needed before courtship may begin or before the female gives the male an answer to his advances.

Essential Oils

The research uses theories and methods that grew from the same geographical area and historical period. Although reports about mourning and grief have come from many cultures, there is no consensus among bereavement scholars about what concepts explain the most about the ways in which individuals and communities respond to death in different cultures. The question here is: How might scholars develop more cross-cultural concepts of grief and mourning that can describe the thoughts, emotions, interpersonal interactions, myths, and rituals that follow significant deaths in other times and places?

Grief Varies with Culture Cross-cultural study looks outward, seeking an opening to the varieties of cultural expression around the world; but it also looks inward, because an understanding of others can enrich our understanding of our own culture. All people are shaped to some extent by the culture into which they are born.

The History of Religion in Egypt: Ancient, Coptic Christianity & Islam Ms. Sharlyn Scott Desert Vista HS World History & Geography. more prominent throughout Egyptian history as the status of the pharaoh declined. –Funerary Practices The History of Religion in Egypt: Ancient, Coptic Christianity & Islam.

Ethnic Groups China, a large united multi-national state, is composed of 56 ethnic groups. Han Chinese account for These numerous ethnic groups share China’s vast lands but at the same time many live in their individual communities. The relationships between the different ethnic groups have been formed over many years. Distinct Language While hundreds of Chinese dialects are spoken across China, a minority language is not simply a dialect. Rather, it is a language with distinct grammatical and phonological differences from Chinese.

Twenty-one ethnic minority groups have unique writing systems. Chinese Religion Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism are the three major religions in China, although it is true to say that Confucianism is a school of philosophy rather than a religion. Buddhism in China Buddhism is the most important religion in China. During its development in China, it has a profound influence on traditional Chinese culture and thoughts, and has become one of the most important religions in China at that time.

Made in America

Words addressed to a deity usually offer praise or seek guidance, blessing, forgiveness, fertility, victory, or protection. Like prayer, sacrifice is a form of communication with a deity for similar purposes. The word itself means “to make holy. The gifts can take many forms, becoming sacred themselves through ritual consecration. The gods might be offered the most desirable foods or provided with the finest vessels, carvings, tools, and weapons. Historians, however, have often regarded blood sacrifice as the most powerful way to appease the gods.

If you look at the history of dating, marriage, and courtship, a very interesting story emerges. Quick Note The original outline for Courtship in Crisis called for a chapter on the history of courtship.

The early writings on yoga were transcribed on fragile palm leaves that were easily damaged, destroyed or lost. The development of yoga can be traced back to over 5, years ago, but some researchers think that yoga may be up to 10, years old old. The word yoga was first mentioned in the oldest sacred texts, the Rig Veda. The Vedas were a collection of texts containing songs, mantras and rituals to be used by Brahmans, the Vedic priests. Yoga was slowly refined and developed by the Brahmans and Rishis mystic seers who documented their practices and beliefs in the Upanishads, a huge work containing over scriptures.

The Upanishads took the idea of ritual sacrifice from the Vedas and internalized it, teaching the sacrifice of the ego through self-knowledge, action karma yoga and wisdom jnana yoga. Classical Yoga In the pre-classical stage, yoga was a mishmash of various ideas, beliefs and techniques that often conflicted and contradicted each other.

French Culture Facts

Learn more about the history of marriage in the U. Marriage Marriage isn’t what it used to be. As America has evolved over the centuries, so too has the institution of marriage. In colonial times, marriage was largely a matter of property and reproduction. When a colonial woman married, she gave up any legal right as an individual. She was legally bound to obey her husband, just as she would obey God.

“The staging of weddings became a small industry, and mar riage was celebrated throughout popular culture,” states The History Channel. “According to a poll, only 9 percent of Americans thought a single person could be happy.

Prehistory During the long Paleolithic period, bands of predatory hunter-gatherers lived in what is now China. Homo erectus, an extinct species closely related to modern humans, or Homo sapiens, appeared in China more than one million years ago. Anthropologists disagree about whether Homo erectus is the direct ancestor of Homo sapiens or merely related through a mutual ancestor.

In either case, modern humans may have first appeared in China as far back as , years ago. Beginning in about 10, BCE, humans in China began developing agriculture, possibly influenced by developments in Southeast Asia. On the fine, wind-blown loess soils of the north and northwest, the primary crop was millet, while villages along the lower Yangtze River in Central China were centered on rice production in paddy fields, supplemented by fish and aquatic plants.

Humans in both regions had domesticated pigs, dogs, and cattle, and by BCE sheep had become important in the north and water buffalo in the south. Over the course of the 5th to 3rd millennia BCE, many distinct, regional Neolithic cultures emerged. In the northwest, for instance, people made red pottery vessels decorated in black pigment with designs such as spirals, sawtooth lines, and zoomorphic animal-like stick figures.

During the same period, Neolithic cultures in the east produced pottery that was rarely painted but had distinctive shapes, such as three-legged, deep-bodied tripods. Archaeologists have uncovered numerous jade ornaments, blades, and ritual objects in several eastern sites, but jade is rare in western ones. In many areas, stamped-earth fortified walls came to be built around settlements, suggesting not only increased contact between settlements but also increased conflict.

Later Chinese civilization probably evolved from the interaction of many distinct Neolithic cultures, which over time came to share more in the way of material culture and social and cultural practices.

The Weirdest Beauty Rituals Throughout History

However, one of the things that art does is extend and expand our shared common visual language. When new visual ideas are first introduced by the artist, they are often seen as shocking, and perhaps even as incomprehensible. However, with time the best and most effective of these ideas are accepted. There is nothing harder than trying to grasp what was shocking or illuminating about certain images, or ways of making images, once the shock is gone, and we have all absorbed this bit of visual data into our own vocabularies.

Artists show us new ways to see familiar things, and how to interpret new situations and events through various kinds of visual shorthand. This creation of visual language may be the artist’s intention, or it may be a side effect of other purposes.

The Culture of Arranged Marriages in India Arranged marriages have always been a debatable subject. It is in the major outlook on relationships that Indians are vastly different, in the way they perceive the institution of marriage, to those beliefs of other countries especially in the west.

She kept score at his games, coached his hitting, and bucked him up when he lost. Ripken did not mention, as Duffield had, the food, clothing, barbering, and schooling that his mother took care of—that went without saying. He noted instead the emotional support and companionship she provided. The long answer to that question is complex, partial, and sometimes surprising.

Answering this question calls for a history that is not focused on presidents and politics but on ordinary people living ordinary lives, a social history. The question generates many detailed inquiries pursued in the chapters that follow.

Yoga Basics

They must undergo the official Catholic rite of exorcism, which involves a consecrated priest invoking the name of God, as well as various saints and the Archangel Michael, to cast out their demons. However, the Catholic Church is not the only religious organisation to conduct rites to rid a person of demonic possession. Virtually every religious and cultural tradition worldwide has espoused the idea of spirit possession and the need for some form of exorcism, and this custom dates back thousands of years.

So here are six of the most hilarious archaic dating rituals in history. Think of these poor people with sympathy next time you casually add an “xx” to the end of a text. 1.

Today’s Tattoos What is the earliest evidence of tattoos? In terms of tattoos on actual bodies, the earliest known examples were for a long time Egyptian and were present on several female mummies dated to c. But following the more recent discovery of the Iceman from the area of the Italian-Austrian border in and his tattoo patterns, this date has been pushed back a further thousand years when he was carbon-dated at around 5, years old.

Can you describe the tattoos on the Iceman and their significance? Following discussions with my colleague Professor Don Brothwell of the University of York, one of the specialists who examined him, the distribution of the tattooed dots and small crosses on his lower spine and right knee and ankle joints correspond to areas of strain-induced degeneration, with the suggestion that they may have been applied to alleviate joint pain and were therefore essentially therapeutic.

This would also explain their somewhat ‘random’ distribution in areas of the body which would not have been that easy to display had they been applied as a form of status marker. What is the evidence that ancient Egyptians had tattoos? There’s certainly evidence that women had tattoos on their bodies and limbs from figurines c. Also small bronze implements identified as tattooing tools were discovered at the town site of Gurob in northern Egypt and dated to c.

And then, of course, there are the mummies with tattoos, from the three women already mentioned and dated to c. What function did these tattoos serve? Who got them and why? Because this seemed to be an exclusively female practice in ancient Egypt, mummies found with tattoos were usually dismissed by the male excavators who seemed to assume the women were of “dubious status,” described in some cases as “dancing girls. And although it has long been assumed that such tattoos were the mark of prostitutes or were meant to protect the women against sexually transmitted diseases, I personally believe that the tattooing of ancient Egyptian women had a therapeutic role and functioned as a permanent form of amulet during the very difficult time of pregnancy and birth.

HISTORY OF IDEAS – Rituals


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